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Role Of Gender In Congenital Heart Surgery - Results From A National Survey
Raina Sinha, MD, MPH1, Maua Mosha, MPH1, Jennifer Romano, MD, MS2.
1Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA, 2C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Objectives - We aimed to assess gender related experiences by surgeons in congenital heart surgery (CHS).
Methods - A cross-sectional survey was emailed to ascertain the perception of gender in five domains - training, professional career, clinical practice, personal life, and career outlook.
Results - The survey response rate was 94% (17/18) women and 22% (57/261) men. Table 1 lists the aggregate data. Majority of women (53%) were discouraged from pursuing CHS and reported a negative impact of gender in attaining their first CHS job while men reported no impact of gender on either domain. The most frequently reported starting and current annual salaries were lower for women ($150-$250K, $500-$750K; respectively) compared with men ($250-$400K, $750K-$1M) despite similar graduation dates. Sexual harassment was experienced by 65% of women both in training and in practice compared to men (7% and 4%). Male surgeons (51%) reported being very satisfied in CHS vs only 35% of women.
Conclusions - This survey highlights many areas of gender related differences - discouragement due to gender to pursue CHS, sexual harassment in training and practice, salaries, gender perception at work as well as career satisfaction. Despite various differences between both genders, the vast majority in each group would choose to enter this profession again as well as encourage others to do so.
Table 1

Female - 17/18 (94%)Male - 57/261 (22%)p-value
Age > 40 yrs16/17 (94%)52/57 (91%)0.0819
Caucasian : Asian11:644:130.3487
Year of med school graduationMedian 1996 (1991;2003 IQR)Median 1997 (1987;2002 IQR)0.4402
Counseled due to GenderDiscouraged 9/17 (53%)Neither 4/17 (24%)Discouraged 1/57 (2%)Neither 54/57 (95%)<.0001
Post grad education (> 9 years)16/17 (94%)50/57 (87%)0.4284
Sexual harassment during training11/17 (65%)4/57 (7%)<.0001
ABTS Certification17/17 (100%)53/57 (93%)0.5677
ABTS – CHS Certification13/17 (77%)49/57 (86%)0.4537
Gender Impact 1st job attainment – YES9/17 (53%)0<.0001
1st annual salary$150-250K (10, 60%)$250-400K (3, 18%)$150-250K (19, 33%)$250-400K (22, 40%)0.1847
Current Salary$500-750K (7/17, 40%)>$1.5 M (1/17, 6%)$500-750K and $750K – 1 M (12/57, 21%)>$1.5 M (9/57, 16%)0.4094
Gender pay disparity14/17 (82%)1/57 (2%)<.0001
Sexual harassment during practice11/17 (65%)2/57 (4%)<.0001
Gender perception in work environmentNegative (10/17, 60%)No role (5/17, 29%)Negative (3/57), 5%)No role (42/57, 74%)<.0001
Gender perception in cardiology referralsNegative (9/17, 53%)No role (5/17, 29%)Negative (0)No role (51/57, 90%)<.0001


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